Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. The word "corn" outside the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and maize, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil. In places outside the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn often refers to maize in culinary contexts. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)), Pythium graminicola (seedling blight of grasses), Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)), Schistocerca americana (south American locust), Sclerophthora rayssiae var. Hot Corn: Life Scenes in New York Illustrated (Series appearing in 1853 in the NY Tribune, later as a book). [96] The process was later used in the cuisine of the American South to prepare corn for grits and hominy. This, in turn, results in farm acreage being diverted from other food crops to maize production. These latter substances are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway[47] from polymerization of flavan-4-ols[48] by the expression of maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene[49] which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator[50] of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols)[51] while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor. Maize is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel. As maize was introduced to new cultures, new uses were developed and new varieties selected to better serve in those preparations. [87], In 2016, maize production was forecast to be over 15 billion bushels, an increase of 11% over 2014 American production. Maize (/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. As maize matures, DIMBOA levels and resistance to the corn borer decline. Probably this maize was brought across the Andes from Chile. "The globalization of hybrid maize, 1921–70. Northern armyworm, Oriental armyworm or Rice ear-cutting caterpillar (, Byerlee, Derek. I. Maize (corn) Zea mays 12 1.1.3 Maize (corn) for silage Zea mays 12 Maize (hybrid) Zea mays 12 Maize, ordinary Zea mays 12 Mandarin Citrus reticulata 324 Mangel (fodder beet) Beta vulgaris 81 Mango Mangifera indica 315 [7] Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. [49] The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins. It is unclear how common this allergy is in the general population. They are Monocots i.e., have one cotyledon (seed-leaf) and are … The fields are planted and fertilized. Solon Robinson. Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize. Maize is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use maize kernels as a fuel. G raw sweet potato [121], Maize was introduced into the diet of non-indigenous Americans without the necessary cultural knowledge acquired over thousands of years in the Americas. An unusual use for maize is to create a "corn maze" (or "maize maze") as a tourist attraction. Philippine downy mildew of maize; Other Scientific Names. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. FDS-11-l-01. (The term "teosinte" describes all. Maize contains lipid transfer protein, an indigestible protein that survives cooking. Maize, scientific name Zea mays, also known as corn or mielie/mealie, is one of the most extensively cultivated cereal crops on Earth. Maize itself is sometimes used for temporary architectural detailing when the intent is to celebrate the fall season, local agricultural productivity and culture. [citation needed]. A maize mutant (bx) lacking DIMBOA is highly susceptible to attack by aphids and fungi. Scientific classification . 1.2.1 In Hindi. However, a widespread problem of malnutrition soon arose wherever maize was introduced as a staple food. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Scientific name i: Zea mays: Taxonomy navigation › Zea All lower taxonomy ... Common name i: Maize: Synonym i-Other names i ›Zea mays L. ›Zea mays mays ›Zea mays var. [63], Genetically modified (GM) maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in 2016. Today corn cribs with whole ears, and corn binders, are less common because most modern farms harvest the grain from the field with a combine and store it in bins. Popcorn (popped corn, popcorns or pop-corn) is a variety of corn kernel which expands and puffs up when heated; the same names are also used to refer to the foodstuff produced by the expansion.. A popcorn kernel's strong hull contains the seed's hard, starchy shell endosperm with 14–20% moisture, which turns to steam as the kernel is heated. [35] The stem is commonly composed of 20 internodes[36] of 18 cm (7 in) length. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. [54] This may cause inflorescences containing both male and female flowers, or hermaphrodite flowers. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces one ear per stalk. After ceramic vessels were invented the Olmec people began to cook maize together with beans, improving the nutritional value of the staple meal. Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat, is added to the rotation. The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. H raw sorghum University supported breeding programs were especially important in developing and introducing modern hybrids (Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize Breeding and Seed Production pub. [52] The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments. A raw yellow dent corn This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. [27][28] In the United States,[27] Canada,[29] Australia, and New Zealand,[30] corn primarily means maize; this usage started as a shortening of "Indian corn". How to use maize in a sentence. The farm that consumes the feed may produce it, purchase it on the market, or some of both. DIMBOA is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer (family Crambidae). Chrysanthemin is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring. [13], According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes. [99], Maize is a major source of both grain feed and fodder for livestock. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. [citation needed] Corn on the cob was hawked on the streets of early 19th-century New York City by poor, barefoot "Hot Corn Girls", who were thus the precursors of hot dog carts, churro wagons, and fruit stands seen on the streets of big cities today.[98]. Its traditions and rituals involved all aspects of maize cultivation – from the planting to the food preparation. Heuzé V., Tran G., Edouard N., Lebas F., 2017. [100] Before the advent of widespread ensilaging, it was traditional to gather the corn into shocks after harvesting, where it dried further. [89] Maize is especially popular in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Illinois; in the latter, it was named the state's official grain in 2017.[90]. The idea of a maize maze was introduced by the American Maze Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania in 1993. avenae (bacterial leaf blight), Acremonium maydis (black bundle disease: maize), Aeneolamia contigua (spotted spittlebug of pastures), Agromyza parvicornis (corn blotch leaf miner), Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart), Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed), Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers), Amaranthus blitoides (spreading amaranth), Amaranthus graecizans (prostrate pigweed), Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp), Anomala cupripes (large green chafer beetle), Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy), Aulacophora hilaris (pumpkin flea beetle), Barley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf), Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode), Blastobasis graminea (sugarcane borer moth), Borreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed), Brachiaria paspaloides (common signal grass), Busseola fusca (African maize stalk borer), Caliothrips striatopterus (black thrips of maize), Callitettix versicolor (sugarcane spittlebug), Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas), Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma), Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma), Carpophilus hemipterus (dried fruit beetle), Caulophilus oryzae (broad nosed grain weevil), Ceratocystis paradoxa (black rot of pineapple), Cerodontha denticornis (grass sheath miner), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (anthurium thrips), Chilo auricilius (gold-fringed rice borer), Chilo polychrysus (dark-headed striped borer), Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer), Chlorophorus annularis (bamboo tiger longicorn), Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot), Chrysodeixis eriosoma (green looper caterpillar), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. In 1939, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn. Legal Status. Research from the 1950s to 1970s originally focused on the hypothesis that maize domestication occurred in the highlands between the states of Oaxaca and Jalisco, because the oldest archaeological remains of maize known at the time were found there. C raw hard red winter wheat Species: Z. mays. Considering the low average maize grain yields that are still pervasive in farmers’ fields, meeting the projected increase demand for maize grain in Africa presents a challenge. Maize. Many of the maize varieties grown in the United States and Canada are hybrids. This reduces the supply of the other food crops and increases their prices.[106][107]. These "futures" are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) under ticker symbol C. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, September, and December.[109]. There are two major species of the genus Zea (out of six total): Zea mays (maize) and Zea diploperennis, which is a perennial type of teosinte. Maize is a facultative short-day plant[41] and flowers in a certain number of growing degree days > 10 °C (50 °F) in the environment to which it is adapted. Barbara McClintock used these knob markers to validate her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by around 3 mm (1⁄8 in) per day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in)[34] with 60 cm (24 in) being the maximum alleged in the subspecies. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology", "The maize unstable factor for orange1 is a dominant epigenetic modifier of a tissue specifically silent allele of pericarp color1", Structural And Transcriptional Analysis Of The Complex P1-wr Cluster In Maize. In the midwestern United States, low-till or no-till farming techniques are usually used. This process makes use of the whole plant rather than simply using the kernels as in the production of fuel ethanol. how domestication could have proceeded without leaving remains of teosinte or maize with teosintoid traits earlier than the earliest known until recently, dating from ca. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. Maize pollen is anemophilous (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel. In Jackson Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection (rather than the current view that maize was exploited by interplanting with teosinte) by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were usually several centimetres/inches long each. Maize or Indian corn (called corn in some countries) is Zea mays, a member of the grass family Poaceae.It is a cereal grain which was first grown by people in ancient Central America.Approximately 1 billion tonnes are harvested every year. Maize is used to produce cornstarch, a common ingredient in home cooking and many industrialized food products. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Maize was the staple food, or a major staple – along with squash, Andean region potato, quinoa, beans, and amaranth – of most pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures. Maize, or corn, is a monocotyledonous plant, being a member of the grass family.Corn (Scientific name, Zea mays) is also known as maize. Within the United States, the usage of maize for human consumption constitutes only around 1/40th of the amount grown in the country. Maize has been a dietary staple grain in its native regions for thousands of years, and nowadays it is arguably the quintessential American crop.Though commonly known as "corn" in many English-speaking countries, the term "maize" - a Spanish adaptation of the indigenous Taíno word mahis - is still widely used in most parts of the world. How about field corn? corn. Z raw plantains Case study – Maize (translated from Portuguese)", "Cultivated wetlands and emerging complexity in south-central Chile and long distance effects of climate change", "Identificación de maiz de vasijas recuperadas de la Patagonia noroccidental argentina", "Descifrando la historia ambiental de los archipiélagos de Aysén, Chile: El influjo colonial y la explotación económica-mercantil republicana (siglos XVI-XIX)", "The Maximum Leaf Number of the Maize Subspecies", "Ecology of Exotic Races of Maize. [120], It was eventually discovered that the indigenous Americans had learned to soak maize in alkali-water (the process now known as nixtamalization) —made with ashes and lime (calcium oxide) since at least 1200–1500 BC by Mesoamericans and North Americans—which liberates the B-vitamin niacin, the lack of which was the underlying cause of the condition known as pellagra. Although it is grown mainly in wet, hot climates, it has been said to thrive in cold, hot, dry or wet conditions, meaning that it is an extremely versatile crop. National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Origin of maize and interaction with teosintes, "Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca", "Please settle a dispute. Field maize is left in the field until very late in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring. Zea mays. maize. The latter produce sheaves that can be shocked. National agricultural and industry associations often include the word maize in their name even in English-speaking countries where the local, informal word is something other than maize; for example, the Maize Association of Australia, the Indian Maize Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize Breeders Network, the National Maize Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed Maize Association. "[24] Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. B raw unenriched long-grain white rice 450-884-0474 OU 450-898-5723. Zea mays ssp. [6] In 2018, total world production was 1.15 billion tonnes, led by the United States with 34.2% of the total (table). [4] The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. [72]:10 It is supported experimentally and by recent studies of the plants' genomes. [69], In September 2000, up to $50 million worth of food products were recalled due to the presence of Starlink genetically modified corn, which had been approved only for animal consumption and had not been approved for human consumption, and was subsequently withdrawn from the market. [71], Several theories had been proposed about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica:[72][73], In the late 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum, a related genus. [70], Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte. [58], In 2005, the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) formed a consortium to sequence the B73 maize genome. [22] However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. Maize reproduces sexually each year. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil. According to OXFAM UK, after NAFTA went into effect, the price of maize in Mexico fell 70% between 1994 and 2001. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in Mexico's southwestern highlands, and also known as Balsas teosinte, as being the crop wild relative that is genetically most similar to modern maize. [89] Based on conditions as of August 2016, the expected yield would be the highest ever for the United States. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate, even more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities. Maize was represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally.[125]. Triticum aestivum. Since then, even earlier dates have been published. The combine separates the husk and the cob, keeping only the kernels. Are They Development Strategies? [105] Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. These are the source of the "baby corn" used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. [18][19] Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize was "knee-high by the Fourth of July", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. This genetic tolerance is very rarely found in nature. [81], In 2005, research by the USDA Forest Service suggested that the rise in maize cultivation 500 to 1,000 years ago in what is now the southeastern United States corresponded with a decline of freshwater mussels, which are very sensitive to environmental changes. [8] Subsidies in the United States help to account for the high level of cultivation of maize in the United States and the fact that the U.S. is the world's largest maize producer. The breakdown of usage of the 12.1-billion-bushel (307-million-tonne) 2008 US maize crop was as follows, according to the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Report by the USDA. The scientific name for corn is zea mays corn belongs to the kingdom plantae. Maize is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". [89] The area of harvested maize was forecast to be 87 million acres, an increase of 7% over 2015. Archaeological remains of early maize ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave in the Oaxaca Valley, date back roughly 6,250 years; the oldest ears from caves near Tehuacan, Puebla, 5,450 B.P. A third theory, promoted by the eugenicist Charles Davenport, held that people only contracted pellagra if they were susceptible to it due to certain "constitutional, inheritable" traits of the affected individual. [112], In the US since 2009/2010, maize feedstock use for ethanol production has somewhat exceeded direct use for livestock feed; maize use for fuel ethanol was 5,130 million bushels (130 million tonnes) in the 2013/2014 marketing year. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption. Division: Magnoliophyta. Smith)", "A Unique 33-kD Cysteine Proteinase Accumulates in Response to Larval Feeding in Maize Genotypes Resistant to Fall Armyworm and Other Lepidoptera", "The impact of corn rootworm protected biotechnology traits in the United States", Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management, "Chapter 8: Improvement of maize diets; from corporate document: Maize in human nutrition", "Corn for Home Heat: A Green Idea That Never Quite Popped", "Maize feedstocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification", "Fuel Ethanol Plants – Thermal Kinetics Engineering, PLLC", "Revista Envío – Are Free Trade Agreements Free? Pellagra still exists today in food-poor areas and refugee camps where people survive on donated maize.[123]. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters. In Mexico the fungus of maize, known as huitlacoche, is considered a delicacy. [46], Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels, While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-colored maizes, the kernel coloration is due to anthocyanins and phlobaphenes. The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. However, in the tropics, maize can be harvested year-round and fed as green forage to the animals.[101]. In moderate amounts, they also supply dietary fiber and the essential minerals, magnesium and phosphorus whereas other nutrients are in low amounts (table). Penguin Academics, London. Scientific Name: Busseola fusca ... Maize-legume rotation sequences improve the supply of nitrogen in the soil and the nutritional status of maize, which compared to maize-maize sequences. Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize), Sesamia calamistis (African pink stem borer), Sesamia cretica (greater sugarcane borer), Sesamia nonagrioides (Mediterranean corn stalk borer), Sesamia uniformis (shoot boring caterpillar), Sitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil), Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood), Sphacelotheca reiliana (head smut of maize), Spiroplasma kunkelii (corn stunt spiroplasma), Spodoptera latifascia (lateral lined armyworm), Spodoptera mauritia (paddy swarming caterpillar), Spodoptera ornithogalli (yellow striped armyworm), Stenocarpella macrospora (dry rot of maize), Sugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic), Tanymecus dilaticollis (grey corn weevil), Tetranychus gloveri (banks glovers, mite), Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host), Thaumatotibia leucotreta (false codling moth), Thrips hawaiiensis (Hawaiian flower thrips), Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower), Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane), Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle), Trichodorus viruliferus (stubby root nematode), Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode), Urochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass), Valanga nigricornis (valanga grasshopper), Xanthomonas vasicola pv. The total collection has nearly 80,000 samples. Today, all such technologies, from entirely manual harvesting to entirely mechanized, are still in use to some degree, as appropriate to each farm's needs, although the thoroughly mechanized versions predominate, as they offer the lowest unit costs when scaled to large farm operations. It is the main ingredient of corn tortilla, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. Maize has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian era. [53], Maize flowers may sometimes exhibit mutations that lead to the formation of female flowers in the tassel. [86], Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain. Family: Poaceae. There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., translocations and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g., tetraploids). Use of maize for biofuel production increases the demand, and therefore price of maize. Scientific Name. What is the difference? vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease), Xanthomonas vasicola pv. Preferred Scientific Name. "Bt maize" is widely grown in the United States and has been approved for release in Europe. Scientific Name. Corncobs can be hollowed out and treated to make inexpensive smoking pipes, first manufactured in the United States in 1869. Order: Poales. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant. Maize is produced mainly in North West province, the Free State, the Mpumalanga Highveld and the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. [115][116] As a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation, maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than plants that use C3 carbon fixation such as alfalfa and soybeans. Maize breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. ), Pennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass), Phyllotreta nemorum (striped flea beetle), Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow), Pseudocochliobolus verruculosus (post-harvest rot), Pyrenochaeta terrestris (pink root of onion), Rastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug), Rice ragged stunt virus (rice ragged stunt), Richia albicosta (bean, cutworm, western), Romalea guttata (lubber, grasshopper, eastern), Schistocerca nitens (gray bird grasshopper), Sphenophorus callosus (southern corn billbug), Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain), Tetraneura ulmi (elm cockscomb, gall aphid), Tetranychus turkestani (strawberry, spider mite), Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite), Trigonotylus coelestialium (rice, leafbug), Trogoderma inclusum (larger cabinet beetle), Zonocerus variegatus (variegated grasshopper). how the tiny archaeological specimens of 3500–2700 BC could have been selected from a teosinte, and. Raw forms are not edible and cannot be digested. It has also been known as Helminthosporium turcicum. use of Zea mays L. at Cubilán area, highland Ecuador, revealed by ancient starches", "Los antiguos peruanos comían palomitas de maíz", "Did man follow plants or did plants follow man? Maize is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity using corn futures contracts. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Raw, yellow, sweet maize kernels are composed of 76% water, 19% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat (table). nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt & leaf blight), Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaf folder), Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern leaf spot), Cochliobolus lunatus (head mould of grasses, rice and sorghum), Colletotrichum graminicola (red stalk rot of cereals), Conogethes punctiferalis (castor capsule borer), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (rusty grain beetle), Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle), Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed), Curvularia clavata (leaf spot of sorghum), Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge), Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (yellow-backed grasshopper), Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass), Diabrotica barberi (northern corn rootworm), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm), Diatraea grandiosella (southwestern corn borer), Diatraea lineolata (neotropical corn stalk borer), Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize), Digitaria abyssinica (East African couchgrass), Ditylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode), Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode), Dociostaurus maroccanus (Moroccan locust), Dysdercus cingulatus (red cotton stainer), Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug), Elasmopalpus lignosellus (lesser corn stalk borer), Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth), Euschistus variolarius (onespotted stink bug), Fusarium sporotrichioides (kernel rot of maize), Gibberella acuminata (stalk rot of maize), Gibberella fujikuroi (bakanae disease of rice), Globisporangium splendens (blast of oil palm), Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (European mole cricket), Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode), Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode), Helicoverpa assulta (Oriental tobacco budworm), Helicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm), Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope), Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue), Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans (mottled stripe of sugarcane), Heteronychus arator (African black beetle), Heteronychus licas (black sugarcane beetle), High plains wheat mosaic emaravirus (high plains disease), Hortensia similis (common green sugarcane leafhopper), Ipomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa), Leptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop), Leucopholis lepidophora (Areca white grub), Limonius californicus (sugarbeet wireworm), Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil), Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of bean/tobacco), maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize), Maize rayado fino virus (maize rayado fino), Maize streak virus (streak disease of maize), Maize stripe virus (stripe disease of maize), Maladera orientalis (smaller velvet chafer), Mastigosporium rubricosum (leaf fleck: bent grass), Melanoplus bivittatus (twostriped grasshopper), Melanoplus sanguinipes (lesser migratory grasshopper), Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), Metopolophium dirhodum (rose-grass aphid), Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass), Mycosphaerella zeae-maydis (yellow leaf blight of maize), Neocurtilla hexadactyla (six-fingered mole-cricket), Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle), Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer), Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize), Paratrichodorus minor (stubby root nematode), Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed), Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower), Perkinsiella saccharicida (sugarcane leafhopper), Peronosclerospora maydis (downy mildew of maize), Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize), Peronosclerospora sacchari (sugarcane downy mildew), Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew), Phyllachora graminis (black: grasses leaf spot), Platynota stultana (omnivorous leaf roller), Polygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria), Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode), Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode), Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion), Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode), Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer), Pseudomonas syringae pv. 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